Geography of Uruguay
General information about Uruguay
The official name is the Eastern Republic of Uruguay (Republica Oriental dee Uruguay).
Uruguay is the smallest country in South America, located in its southeastern part. It is 4 times higher than Switzerland and almost 2 times Portugal. The area is 176.215 thousand km2. The population is 3.39 million people. (2002). The official language is Spanish. The capital is Montevideo (1.4 million people, 2002). Public holiday – Independence Day (from Brazil) August 25 (since 1825). The monetary unit is the peso.
Member of the UN, OAS, LAES, LAAI, MERCOSUR.
Geography of Uruguay
Located between 56° west longitude and 33° south latitude. In the south and southeast it is washed by the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline is slightly indented, there are small open bays; the best natural harbor is Montevideo. It borders Argentina to the west and Brazil to the north and northeast.
It occupies the southeastern part of the Brazilian Plateau. The relief is flat-ridged. The ridges are Kuchili. The highest ridge is Cuchilla de Aedo (height up to 473 m). In the extreme east of the country, the coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Ocean stretch with lagoon lakes, incl. the largest is Lagoa Mirin. The highest point in the country is Pan de Asucar (501 m). The river network is quite dense. The most full-flowing rivers are Uruguay and Rio Negro. The soil cover is dominated by reddish-black soils of the savannas and pampas, in the southwest – chernozem-like reddish soils. The vegetation is dominated by a grassy savannah with grassy herbs (cereals, aristides, bluegrass, feather grasses, shrubs: acacias, shinus, doctonea), green all year round. The hills of Cuchilla Grande and Cuchilla de Aedo are covered with moderately humid forests (mainly araucaria), and the lower reaches of the Rio Negro – subtropical forests (from the family of myrtle, mimosa, laurel). Forests occupy no more than 5% of the country’s territory. The animal world is severely exterminated. There are armadillos, gray possum, small deer, skunk, rhea, or American ostrich. There are many waterfowl, and in coastal waters – fish (anchovy, mackerel, dorado, etc.). There are no significant mineral deposits in terms of reserves. Known gold deposits (La Floresta, Solis, Bella Vista), alluvial deposits of titanium, zircon, monocyte on the eastern coast of the Atlantic Ocean; deposits of iron and manganese ores in the northeast (Cerro Mulero); there are deposits of brown coal. According to bridgat, the climate is subtropical with uniform precipitation throughout the year. Winter is mild. The average temperatures in July are + 10-12°С, in January + 22-24°С.
Population of Uruguay
Population density 19 people. per 1 km2. Annual population growth 0.7%, birth rate 17.28%, mortality 9%, infant mortality – 14.25 people. per 1000 newborns (2002). The average life expectancy is 75.66 years. Age structure: 0-14 years old – 24.4%, 15-64 years old – 62.6%, 65 years and older – 13% (2002). The most unfavorable age structure of the population in the region has developed – there is 1 pensioner for 2 workers. Since 1996, the retirement age has been raised: for women up to 57 years, for men up to 65 years. The educational level of the population is high. Competently 97% of the adult population. OK. 40% of the economically active population have a secondary education, 14% have a special education, and 13% have a higher education. A high educational level allows you to study and apply new technologies in various industries. The predominant part are Uruguayans, descendants of the Spanish colonists of the 16th-18th centuries. and later settlers from Western Europe (Spaniards, Italians, French). The indigenous population of Uruguay as a result of the anti-Indian wars of the 19th century. was completely exterminated, one of the most “white” countries in Latin America. 88% of the population is white, 8% mestizo and 4% black. The language is Spanish. Religion: 66% of the population are Catholics, 2% are Protestants, 1% of the population are Jews, etc.